Wise Counsel, Sadly Ignored!

Booker T. Washington Addresses 1895 Atlanta Exposition
A Better Approach To Healthy Race Relations

[The following address, by a great, self-educated, Negro educator, is significant in a number of particulars. First, it applies the wisdom of the Founding Fathers, in formulating our Federal Union, to relations between the major races who inhabit our lands. And it does so in an easily grasped metaphor: In all things that are purely social we can be as separate as the fingers, yet one as the hand in all things essential to mutual progress. Is that not precisely the unstated concept, which the Fathers accepted in drafting and ratifying the Constitution for a Federal Republic to oversee those limited areas delineated, on which we were to be "one as the hand," while allowing Puritans in New England, Cavaliers in Virginia and the Carolinas, Quakers in Pennsylvania, Patroons in the Hudson Valley and New Jersey, descendants of transported convicts in part of Georgia, as well as the great Planters of the deep South, and diverse folk across the Union, to each maintain a distinct culture and identity?

Secondly, it clearly defines the path to racial progress. The course, which Washington urges for his people, has been the basic course for human progress among all peoples. Contrast, this rational path to a better life, coupled with Washington's appeal to ancestral trust-based ties between the races of the Old South, with the ugly confrontational approach of the NAACP. The latter, set up by White Fabian Socialists to oppose Washington's influence and launch what led to the "Civil Rights" movement, replaced the plea for personal responsibility and self-improvement with a demand for Federal intervention, coercion and dependence on a Government that subsidizes poverty. The result has been an explosion in illegitimacy and crime, coupled with a self-destructive tendency to seek to justify failure by blaming the success of others for every frustration.

Thirdly, it clearly affirms the Negro's loyalty to the Old South; giving the lie to the assumptions of a number of Left-leaning writers that there was a deep antagonism between the races, prior to the one created by the "Civil Rights" movement. Washington, remember, was speaking to people who knew the history of both Slavery and Reconstruction, because they had lived it. When he called up the images of Negro loyalty to the Old South--of Negroes "often following" their former White family members "with tear-dimmed eyes to their graves"--he was invoking the vivid memories of his audience. It was the recognized truth of that loyalty, which made this speech one of the most effective ever delivered in America. (It was hailed across the continent in the weeks that followed.)

Finally, the course advocated--the immediate plea to his audience--was to give preference in employment to the loyal Southern Negroes over the waves of new Immigrants, competing for the same potential jobs. Contrast Washington's common sense and genuine interest in the true welfare of his people, here, with the near silence of so many self-anointed individuals, claiming to be spokesmen for the race, today; men, who will not speak out against the waves of incongruous immigration, now flooding over our Southern borders.]

Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Board of Directors and Citizens:

One-third of the population of the South is of the Negro race. No enterprise seeking the material, civil, or moral welfare of this section can disregard this element of our population and reach the highest success. I but convey to you, Mr. President and Directors, the sentiment of the masses of my race when I say that in no way have the value and manhood of the American Negro been more fittingly and generously recognized than by the managers of this magnificent Exposition at every stage of its progress. It is a recognition that will do more to cement the friendship of the two races than any occurrence since the dawn of our freedom.

Not only this, but the opportunity here afforded will awaken among us a new era of industrial progress. Ignorant and inexperienced, it is not strange that in the first years of our new life we began at the top instead of at the bottom; that a seat in Congress or the state legislature was more sought than real estate or industrial skill; that the political convention or stump speaking had more attractions than starting a dairy farm or truck garden.

A ship lost at sea for many days suddenly sighted a friendly vessel. From the mast of the unfortunate vessel was seen a signal, "Water, water; we die of thirst!" The answer from the friendly vessel at once came back, "Cast down your bucket where you are." A second time the signal, "Water, water; send us water!" ran up from the distressed vessel, and was answered, "Cast down your bucket where you are." And a third and fourth signal for water was answered, "Cast down your bucket where you are." The captain of the distressed vessel, at last heeding the injunction, cast down his bucket, and it came up full of fresh, sparkling water from the mouth of the Amazon River.

To those of my race who depend on bettering their condition in a foreign land or who underestimate the importance of cultivating friendly relations with the Southern white man, who is their next-door neighbour, I would say: "Cast down your bucket where you are"--cast it down in making friends in every manly way of the people of all races by whom we are surrounded.

Cast it down in agriculture, mechanics, in commerce, in domestic service, and in the professions. And in this connection it is well to bear in mind that whatever other sins the South may be called to bear, when it comes to business, pure and simple, it is in the South that the Negro is given a man's chance in the commercial world, and in nothing is this Exposition more eloquent than in emphasizing this chance. Our greatest danger is that in the great leap from slavery to freedom we may overlook the fact that the masses of us are to live by the productions of our hands, and fail to keep in mind that we shall prosper in proportion as we learn to dignify and glorify common labour and put brains and skill into the common occupations of life; shall prosper in proportion as we learn to draw the line between the superficial and the substantial, the ornamental gewgaws of life and the useful. No race can prosper till it learns that there is as much dignity in tilling a field as in writing a poem. It is at the bottom of life we must begin, and not at the top. Nor should we permit our grievances to overshadow our opportunities.

To those of the white race who look to the incoming of those of foreign birth and strange tongue and habits for the prosperity of the South, were I permitted I would repeat what I say to my own race, "Cast down your bucket where you are." Cast it down among the eight millions of Negroes whose habits you know, whose fidelity and love you have tested in days when to have proved treacherous meant the ruin of your firesides. Cast down your bucket among these people who have, without strikes and labour wars, tilled your fields, cleared your forests, builded your railroads and cities, and brought forth treasures from the bowels of the earth, and helped make possible this magnificent representation of the progress of the South. Casting down your bucket among my people, helping and encouraging them as you are doing on these grounds, and to the education of head, hand and heart, you will find that they will buy your surplus land, make blossom the waste places in your fields, and run your factories.

While doing this, you can be sure in the future, as in the past, that you and your families will be surrounded by the most patient, faithful, law-abiding, and unresentful people that the world has seen. As we have proved our loyalty to you in the past, in nursing your children, watching by the sick-bed of your mothers and fathers, and often following them with tear-dimmed eyes to their graves, so in the future, in our humble way, we shall stand by you with a devotion that no foreigner can approach, ready to lay down our lives, if need be, in defense of yours, interlacing our industrial, commercial, civil, and religious life with yours in a way that shall make the interests of both races one. In all things that are purely social we can be as separate as the fingers, yet one as the hand in all things essential to mutual progress.

There is no defence or security for any of us except in the highest intelligence and development of all. If anywhere there are efforts tending to curtail the fullest growth of the Negro, let those efforts be turned into stimulating, encouraging, and making him the most useful and intelligent citizen. Effort or means so invested will pay a thousand per cent interest. These efforts will be twice blessed--"blessing him that gives and him that takes."

There is no escape through law of man or God from the inevitable:--
The laws of changeless justice bind
Oppressor with oppressed;
And close as sin and suffering joined
We march to fate abreast.

Nearly sixteen millions of hands will aid you in pulling the load upward, or they will pull against you the load downward. We shall constitute one-third and more of the ignorance and crime of the South, or one-third its intelligence and progress; we shall contribute one-third to the business and industrial prosperity of the South, or we shall prove a veritable body of death, stagnating, depressing, retarding every effort to advance the body politic.

Gentlemen of the Exposition, as we present to you our humble effort at an exhibition of our progress, you must not expect overmuch. Starting thirty years ago with ownership here and there in a few quilts and pumpkins and chickens (gathered from miscellaneous sources), remember the path that has led from these to the inventions and production of agricultural implements, buggies, steam-engines, newspapers, books, statuary, carving, paintings, the management of drug-stores and banks, has not been trodden without contact with thorns and thistles. While we take pride in what we exhibit as a result of our independent efforts, we do not for a moment forget that our part in this exhibition would fall far short of your expectations but for the constant help that has come to our educational life, not only from the Southern states, but especially from Northern philanthropists, who have made their gifts a constant stream of blessing and encouragement.

The wisest among my race understand that the agitation of questions of social equality is the extremist folly, and that progress in the enjoyment of all the privileges that will come to us must be the result of severe and constant struggle rather than of artificial forcing. No race that has anything to contribute to the markets of the world is long in any degree ostracized. It is important and right that all privileges of the law be ours, but it is vastly more important that we be prepared for the exercises of these privileges. The opportunity to earn a dollar in a factory just now is worth infinitely more than the opportunity to spend a dollar in an opera house.

In conclusion, may I repeat that nothing in thirty years has given us more hope and encouragement, and drawn us so near to you of the white race, as this opportunity offered by the Exposition; and here bending, as it were, over the altar that represents the results of the struggles of your race and mine, both starting practically empty-handed three decades ago, I pledge that in your effort to work out the great and intricate problem which God has laid at the doors of the South, you shall have at all times the patient, sympathetic help of my race; only let this be constantly in mind, that, while from representations in these buildings of the product of the field, of forest, of mine, of factory, letters, and art, much good will come, yet far above and beyond material benefits will be that higher good, that, let us pray God, will come, in a blotting out of sectional differences and racial animosities and suspicions, in a determination to administer absolute justice, in a willing obedience among all classes to the mandates of law. This, this, coupled with our material prosperity, will bring into our beloved South a new heaven and a new earth.


[It should be emphasized that the Southern Negroes did not abandon Booker T. Washington's wise counsel with the launching of the NAACP challenge by White Leftists in 1909. For the next 40 years, the "Civil Rights" movement remained predominantly an agitation by Leftwing Whites. It was pushed by those whom a dedicated anti-Communist--a former next door neighbor to your web guide--used to refer to as "frothy whites." It is significant that even in the 1950s, when Southern Negroes began to turn to the confrontational movement in large numbers, the NAACP continued to be controlled by a largely White Board of Directors.

No one, who sincerely cares about the well being of American Negroes, can ignore the consequences that have flowed from the abandonment of the kindly spirit and loving admonitions of Booker T. Washington, in favor the tactics of social revolution. As American Negroes were lured away from the philosophy, which permeates the above address, the social stability of many of their communities collapsed. Crime rates soared, drug addiction flourished, the family structure disintegrated. Whereas there had been a small irresponsible element before, 80% of the children had been born to married couples; children able to enjoy the family structure essential to give any people a sense of continuity of purpose. Today, the figure is about 30%--even lower in some areas. But do not take our word. Check out the statistics year by year, and compare them with the political and social developments taking place at the same time, or just before. The correlation says it all!

In place of schools premised upon the need of the individual child, able to take into account individual differences in personality traits and aptitudes, the Civil Rights Revolution was premised upon a compulsive need to try to prove everyone equal; those with unequal skills thus became victims of driven theorists. As a result millions of lives have been diverted from their actual potential to sate the neurotic need of an academic day dream. (See The Rape Of Tolerance.) In place of an agenda premised upon Christian values, shared history and the benefits of personal responsibility and accountability; over a generation of young Negroes have been indoctrinated into a culture of resentment, envy and blame, where personal responsibility is made to seem more and more foreign and unworthy--a humiliation rather than a foundation.

The saddest factor is that some of these degenerative aspects will tend to be self-perpetuating. In the process of "integrating" the Negro, the Left has undermined his sense of ethnic continuity. In place of identifying with the struggles, hardships, as well as happier aspects of a history; instead of honoring lines of descent and the ongoing dynamic of a people; the Left has embraced a culture that denies the importance of a people's past--other than for perpetuating a sense of grievance--while deliberately confusing their sense of personal identification; even trying to change the nomenclatures by which peoples refer to themselves, and denigrating much of their heritage. Yet it must be obvious to any reflective person, that the greatest wisdom and power of the Fifth Commandment, ultimately, is not that it looks backwards in time, but that it looks forward toward a better future. In honoring our past, we learn the importance of doing what is right for our children & our children's children.]

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